Thanks to God, Dr. Loyd, JoHanna, Cathy, Susan Glynn and all The Healing Codes staff for your heartfelt work! May the New Year be a prosperous and healthy. Heart Issues Finder from The healing Codes. Pinpoint the Issues of the Heart that need to be healed. Free page report!. LT3 information: what it is, how it works, how to sign up to get personal coaching with Information on The Healing Codes and Healing Codes Coaching from.

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My life was seeming to be on a fast track to a mental and emotional breakdown until I began doing the Lt3, today I have so much hope for my future, love and appreciation for myself and others, even the haters. Just last night I was listening to Dr. Alex again as he explained the Master Key 2 or Lt4 and my heart was just overflowing with love and appreciation and gratitude for all of the Healing Codes Family.

Thanks to God, Dr. May the New Year be a prosperous and healthy one for us all! I know I am about to receive what I have wanted my entire life. Alex, I am so grateful for your personal help with the LT3 process, it has a been a pleasure working with you. I was initially somewhat haunted by the cost of participating in this program but am completely happy that I decided to join in.

On day two I realized I had forgotten to take my medication for my high blood pressure and checked it fearing it would be through the roof. Much to my surprise it was completely normal for the first time in nearly two years. I have kept a close watch in it throughout the program and as we wrap it up, my Doctor is scratching his head and taking me off of the medication completely. Thank you, thank you, thank you! I am 62 and I feel like a new person. Gone is the depression!

I have more energy, my brain is clearer and my memory has improved. I feel a deep peace I used to get glimpses of when I was in my twenties.

There are two health issues that I am continuing to work on: The former I have been trying to healimg for 26 years; the latter for 2 years. I have spent thousands of dollars out of pocket trying different therapeutic methods to treat these ailments as well as the depression which has lifted. My nose heaking almost healed……. Each day I continue to notice changes. I have full faith that this will ckdes completely. My skin has greatly improved. It no longer itches cldes it used to.

Certain foods that used to trigger the itching do not any more. The rash is still red and raised; however, with the changes I am seeing I know this will become an issue of the past. If you come across this program, please consider yourself very fortunate.

LT3 is the most productive, self-empowering healing modality I healingg experienced in the past 15 years. I have reached a whole new level of wellness and well-being in the comfort of my own home.

I miss our Thursday morning calls! LT4 is quite phenomenal. It creates a powerful, meditative state and I know healing is happening. I feel that LT4 with the Power Source and Hidden Virus codes will heal everything I am challenged with; the long standing depression, anxiety and health. I consciously have been praying that all my cells move out of protection into growth….

This healing work is my top priority My job has changed and is physically fatiguing. I know the LT work is helping me be able to sustain it. When is your next LT3 class? I will be strongly encouraging some of my friends and clients to join in. I feel calm and peaceful!!!

,t3 Alex for your heartfelt support. I have had sleep issues for decades.

Alexander Loyd – The Healing Codes – LT3

Sleep specialist doctors have not been able to figure it out. My other health issues have also greatly improved. The first 2 weeks, I went from being stuck to NOT being stuck!! I am so grateful! After 2 weeks of the LT3, I feel like the clouds have passed — physically, emotionally, and mentally! Alex is a wonderful, gifted teacher! After 1 week of the LT3, I have more peace, calm, happiness, and am sleeping better.

I am more joyful — people are commenting about how happy I am now — and all after only 1 week! I have tried everything — EFT, etc. I am a classically trained soprano, and had lost the upper end of my range.

I am telling anyone and everyone about the LT3. As a professional athlete, I have been on TV, Magazine covers, newspaper headlines, etc. I left home at an early age to train to be a world class professional athlete — and became just that. Best of all, the LT3 does this quickly and simply — in a way that is almost effortless. My spine and hips have turned and straightened to their proper place, after 2 weeks of the LT3.

It helped me tremendously with an issue I have ckdes working on for 18 months. They were all still focused on the externals — there was something missing. I have tried all of the self-help — just name one, and I have done it. I am doing long difficult surgeries every day and am not getting tired. It is an honor to be your lt3 client! You are so gracious, kind and genuine. I appreciate your love for God and your dependence on Him. As I continue to healiing the lt3 and lt4 tools, my life has changed in every way.

Testimonials for Dr Alexander Loyd’s LT3 Program

The feelings of stress, anxiety and fear have been greatly reduced. I feel much closer to the Lord which is an excellent benefit.

Also, I have a much more positive out look about the future. Thank you for the insights about the heart screen meditation. The more I do the heart screen meditation, the more those positive feelings stay with me throughout the day.

It is a blessing to see the hidden power fear based viruses diminish. I really enjoy doing the hidden power source. The feeling that I am focused on now is joy. I also want to give a heartfelt thank you to Cindy Pierre and JoHanna Chan for their love and kindness. Alex, again thank you for your wisdom, love and encouragement! Multiplied blessings to you, Hope and your sons. All these changes happened in the past 5 weeks of the LT3 program. You will be forever grateful, as I am.

After 2 weeks, testing showed dramatic healing! Alex, It is an honor to be your lt3 client! My husband, Don and I love you and your staff. Warmest regards, Kathy Burns More coming soon! Hfaling Log In Here. You are not logged in You are not currently logged in. When you ask for a new password you will get 2 e-mails. The first will ask you to confirm that it is you who requested the password. You MUST click the link in that e-mail.

Then you will get another e-mail containing ly3 new password. Follow The Healing Codes.

LT3 Testimonials

The information provided on this site is for informational purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for advice from your physician or other health care professional or any information contained on or in any product label or packaging. You should not use the information on this site for diagnosis or treatment of any health problem or for prescription of any medication or other treatment.

You should consult with a healthcare professional before starting any diet, exercise or supplementation program, before taking any medication, or if you have or suspect you might have a health problem. You should not stop taking any medication without first consulting your physician.


AKHKHARU – Vampyre Magick is a complete grimoire of Vampyric Magick – from beginner to Advanced. The Vampyre Magickian explores. All about AKHKHARU – Vampyre Magick by Michael Ford. LibraryThing is a cataloging and social networking site for booklovers. Results 1 – 13 of 13 Akhkharu – Vampyre Magick by Ford, Michael and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at

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No current Talk conversations about this book. I am not primarily a left hand vampyrw worker. This is still an excellent book on Left Aihkharu Path magic by a well respected author. He uses primarily demonic invocations, barbarous words of power, visualizations and energy work in his practice. Be aware however, that his vampirism is entirely energy based and has no blood magic or sanguinarian magic in it. This is still a good, workable system though and I can recommend it to dark path magicians.

Akhkharu: Vampyre Magick

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The Vampyre Magickian explores foundational techniques, practice and the mindset needed to transform consciousness into a Godlike state. The grimoire presents vampure Ancient Sumerian and Chaldean Sorcery lore and Magick – Vampyrism and demonology, A chapter on the Daemonic Feminine and powerful devotionals – including the Daemonic Feminine version of the Azal’ucel working.

AKHKHARU – Vampyre Magick by Michael Ford (Paperback) – Lulu

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Arnold’s Sonatina was written in January, and was first performed at the Gallery of the Royal Society of British Artists in London by Colin Davis. The piece is. Buy Sonatina for Clarinet and Piano by Malcolm Arnold (ISBN: ) from Amazon’s Book Store. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible. : Arnold: Clarinet Sonatina, Op. 29 (): Malcolm Arnold: Books.

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Uniform Title Sonatina, clarinet, piano Sonatinas, clarinet, piano, op. Also Titled Sonatina for clarinet and piano.

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Malcolm Arnold

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Compared to literary studies, the discipline of art history has been slow to theorize the complex relationship between historical reality and its representations. Anselm Kiefer and Art after Auschwitz examines the legacy of German-Jewish culture in the aftermath of the Holocaust. Positioning Kiefer as a deeply learned. Anselm Kiefer and Art After Auschwitz examines the possibilities and limits of painting in the aftermath of the Holocaust. Positioning Kiefer as a.

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Anselm Kiefer and art after Auschwitz | Imperial War Museums

Art Books Art History: Anselm Kiefer and Afte after Auschwitz. Positioning Kiefer as a deeply learned artist who encounters kieferr represents history in painted, rather than written form, Lisa Saltzman contends that his work is unique among post-war German artists in his persistent exploration of the legacy of fascism.

Formally, thematically, and philosophically, Kiefer’s work probes the aesthetic and ethical dilemma of representing the unrepresentable, the historical catastrophe into whose aftermath the artist was born.

Kiefer’s work mediates the relationship between a deeply traumatic history that he, as a German born after World War Auschwittz, and his post-Holocaust spectators cannot fully know, but to which his work bears witness and provides access.

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We’re considering either Almeria or Tarifa for this and I would really appreciate it if anyone has any tips on which would be most suitable for us. Cadiz is the place to spend that extra week. Especially on a weekend. From there you can take one day trips to tarifa, Jerez etc. An excellent place to stay is at Hostal La Andaluza http: All of your saved places can be found here in My Trips.

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JavaSpaces is a powerful Jini service that provides a high-level tool for creating .. In a tutorial style, we cover the mechanics of creating a space-based. Selection from JavaSpaces™ Principles, Patterns, and Practice [Book] access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more. If you want more detail, I recommend Jan Newmarch’s Jini Tutorial. A JavaSpace is a Jini service that stores Java objects in memory. This makes it very useful.

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Jini is a distributed computing technology developed by Sun Microsystems. It is now being continued under the auspices of the Apache River project. This page provides some background information about Jini, a description of one of the most common patterns used in Jini systems, and a simple introductory example. The network is reliable Latency is zero Bandwidth is infinite The network is secure Topology doesn’t change There is one administrator Transport cost is zero The network is homogeneous Deutsch noted “All prove to be false in the long run and all cause big trouble and painful learning javaspacess.

Jini directly addresses each of the fallacies Deutsch described. Jini supports the development and deployment of highly available, highly reliable distributed systems despite the javaspacws of the jaavspaces machines, operating systems, and networks. To do so, Jini relies on four core capabilities: Location Independence Components that use services do not need to be configured with explicit knowledge of the location of the service.

Service implementations can be moved without impacting clients. Multiple different implementations can run simultaneously. Automatic Performance Tuning Load balancing titorial other performance enhancements can be made dynamically by bringing up additional instances of services or moving instances to better hardware.

Clients are not impacted by, or javvaspaces aware of, these operations. Jini comes with several standard infrastructure components out of the box. To achieve the non-functional requirements NFRs of performance, resiliency, and scalability, multiple instances of these components run simultaneously on different machines. The standard Jini services are: Lookup Service The lookup service, named reggieis the first among equals of Jini services.

All services in a Jini architecture register with the lookup service to make themselves available to other services. All initial access to other services is via the lookup service, after which clients bind directly. Class Server The class server, a simple HTTP daemon, eliminates the coupling between clients and service implementations. Clients deal with interfaces. If a particular implementation class is required, it is downloaded transparently.

Transaction Manager Distributed transactions support is provided by the transaction manager service called mahalo. JavaSpace Services with a requirement to share information with other services do so through a JavaSpace. The reference implementation of the JavaSpace is named outrigger. The Jini reference implementation includes other services that are not required for this introductory example. A JavaSpace is a Jini service that stores Java objects in memory.

This makes it very useful for supporting collaboration among other services, in addition to its uses as a simple shared memory. This returns a copy and leaves a copy in the JavaSpace. This returns a copy and removes the object from the JavaSpace. All of these methods take a transaction context as an optional parameter. The JavaSpaces05 specification adds support for batch operations. Those four methods suffice to provide the core features most often required in distributed systems: One feature of Jini worth separate mention is the concept of leasing.

All resources in a Jini system are leased, including proxy records in the lookup service, transactions, and, of course, memory in a JavaSpace.

When a lease expires, the resource is recovered and made available to other components. This prevents resource accretion, a common problem in distributed systems. Leases can be renewed explicitly, or implicitly through a lease renewal manager. In the interests of simplicity, the example below uses leases tutoorial last “forever.

JavaSpaces™ Principles, Patterns, and Practice

All objects that can be stored in a JavaSpace must implement the Entry interface. Entry is a simple tag interface that does not add any methods but does extend Serializable.

Like JavaBeans, all Entry implementations must provide a public constructor that takes no arguments. Unlike JavaBeans, all of the data tutotial of an Entry must be public. This design decision is explained by Ken Arnold in an interview with Bill Venners: So if you examine the contract description for an entry’s get and set methods, you would see it describes a field.

Therefore, we asked ourselves, why should we have get and set methods whose behavior is exactly like this other language construct called a field? Why not just make it a field? If we make it a field, it will have javvaspaces correct behavior. Nobody can accidentally screw up their get and set methods. Making it a field eliminates a source of error.

Patrick May

Now this sometimes makes people uncomfortable because they’ve been told not to have public fields; that public fields are bad. And often, people interpret those things religiously. But we’re not a very religious bunch. And the reason for the private data rule doesn’t apply in this particular case. It is a rare exception to the rule. I also tell people not to put public fields in their objects, but exceptions exist.

This is an exception to the rule, because it is simpler and safer to just say it is a field.

We sat back and asked: Why is the rule thus? In this case it doesn’t. In production Jini systems, the public data members are a non-issue because of common techniques like the envelope-letter idiom. The Entry implementation acts as an envelope or wrapper around the “real” payload, which may be any serializable Java object. The only public data members exposed are those required for the template-based matching of the JavaSpaces API.

After simple object caching, the Master-Worker pattern is the most common use of JavaSpaces. This pattern is quite simple: The master-worker pattern is used in a wide variety of problem domains where either a problem is highly parallelizable or there are a set of tasks that can be performed by any of a set of workers. One particularly nice feature of this pattern is that there is no need for complex scheduling algorithms.

The workers take tasks at whatever rate they are able to process them, automatically load balancing the work across available resources. A variant of the master-worker pattern takes advantage of the fact that a JavaSpace holds full Java objects, not just data. This makes it possible to pass behaviors as well as state between the master and workers. This, in turn, allows the creation of generic workers that can process any task. In this version of the pattern, tasks either expose an execute method or include a strategy to configure the generic worker.

The purpose of this example is to be a walking skeleton of a Jini system. The Jini lookup service The Jini transaction manager A JavaSpace The master, a JavaSpace client that writes tasks and reads results The worker, a JavaSpace client that takes tasks and writes results Functionally, the example is uninteresting — the workers just sleep for random periods of time.

The SleepTask and SleepResult classes are simple Entry implementations, not using the envelope-letter idiom. The SleepMaster class writes a specified number of SleepTask objects to a JavaSpace and then loops until it has retrieved the same number of SleepResult objects.

Before SleepMaster can write to a JavaSpace, it needs a reference to one. For simplicity, this example uses my Jini Lookup Utilities to connect to available lookup services and find JavaSpace proxies. The SleepMaster creates a random ID to uniquely identify the tasks it has created. The tasks themselves are numbered sequentially. This design allows multiple masters to run simultaneously.

Shorn of its exception handling, the code to write to the space looks like this: In a production system, the lease specified in the final parameter would not typically be permanent. The code to take results from the space is: In this case I want to retrieve any result associated with the current master, so I only specify the masterID. JavaSpaces ignores the fields left null.

In a production environment, the timeout period specified in the last parameter would be much shorter. The SleepWorker class loops, performing a blocking take for SleepTask objects. When a task is found, the worker removes it from the space, sleeps for the specified duration, and writes a corresponding SleepResult back to the space.

The take and write operations are performed in a transaction to ensure that all tasks are processed and a result is returned. SleepWorker uses the same utilities to find transaction manager proxies as well.

JavaSpaces™ Principles, Patterns, and Practice [Book]

The code to take tasks from the space looks very similar to the SleepMaster for retrieving results: One aspect that is not obvious is that, like all Jini resources, transactions are leased. If a transaction is not committed or aborted before the lease expires, it is rolled back.

Writing the result back mirrors the initial task write, again with the addition of a transactional context: You will need the Jini 2. Building the example is tutroial.

Jini and JavaSpaces

Deploying the Jini infrastructure is considerably less straightforward than building the example. In fact, deployment configuration is the most difficult and error prone aspect of Jini, the first time you do it.

This example includes scripts to start the core Jini components.


Present study illustrates the role of Fusarium oxysporum ciceri Race1 (Foc1) induced redox responsive transcripts in regulating. Abstract. Based on the differential reaction of 10 chickpea cultivars to pathogenic isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri, the existence of at. About ha are sown annually to chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Andalucia, southern Spain, approximately 66% of the total national acreage of the crop.

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Conceived and designed the experiments: Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. Understanding the molecular basis of chickpea-Foc interaction is necessary to improve chickpea resistance to Foc and thereby the productivity of chickpea. We transformed Foc race 2 using green fluorescent protein GFP gene and used it to characterize pathogen progression and colonization in wilt-susceptible JG62 and wilt-resistant Digvijay chickpea cultivars using confocal microscopy.

We also employed quantitative PCR qPCR to estimate the pathogen load and progression across various tissues of both the chickpea cultivars during the course of the disease. Additionally, the expression of several candidate pathogen virulence genes was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR qRT-PCRwhich showed their characteristic expression in wilt-susceptible and resistant chickpea cultivars.

Our results suggest that the pathogen colonizes the susceptible cultivar defeating its defense; however, albeit its entry in the resistant plant, further proliferation is severely restricted providing an evidence of efficient defense mechanism in the resistant chickpea cultivar.

Chickpea Cicer arietinum L. Chickpea yield has been mostly stagnant over the years due to its susceptibility to various biotic and abiotic factors. The important biotic factors affecting chickpea productivity include Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.

Eight races have been reported for Fusarium oxysporum f. The pathogen can survive in soils for up to six years even without the host, which makes its control very difficult [ 5 ]. Conventional strategies, such as crop rotations, avoiding the infected field to grow chickpea and the use of chemical fungicides are being used to manage the disease.

However, they have not been successful in controlling the disease [ 6 ]. Plant-pathogen interaction is complex and involves the expression of both, pathogen virulence genes as well as plant defense genes. Till date, various candidate genes with prime role in fungal pathogenesis have been identified [ 7 ]. These fungal pathogenicity genes are categorized based on formation of infection structures, cell wall degradation, toxin biosynthesis, signaling and proteins suppressing plant defense [ 8 — 10 ].

Signaling genes expressed during pathogenesis such as fmk1 a mitogen-activated protein kinase in F. In the present study, we transformed Foc race 2 with the eGFP gene encoding green florescent protein GFP and used it to understand the infection process and colonization patterns in wilt-susceptible and wilt-resistant chickpea cultivars.

The expression of several pathogen virulence related genes involved in processes like signaling, cell wall degradation and fungal morphogenesis, as well as those identified in previous studies to be important for fungal pathogenesis was also analyzed. All the three approaches revealed similar and significant differences among the wilt-susceptible and wilt-resistant chickpea cultivars.

JG62 selection from germplasm is susceptible to Fusarium wilt, while Digvijay Phule G X Bheema is resistant to the disease [ 7 ]. Root tips of tap root and lateral roots were cut and the entire root system was dipped in spore suspension for 5 min. Plants mock-inoculated with sterile deionized water served as controls.

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Thus four treatments viz. The plants were lightly watered using autoclaved tap water every 2—3 days. The plants were evaluated for morphological changes and development of wilting symptoms daily after inoculation. Tissues of all the four treatments were collected at all the eight time points mentioned above.

The time scale of the infection process was divided as: Two types of tissues were collected: A kill curve was initially set up for Foc using the poisoned food technique [ 20 ] to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of hygromycin B. Spore count was recorded using a haemocytometer [ 21 ]. Foc 2 transformation was performed according to Mullins et al [ 23 ] with some modifications [ 2425 ].

An overnight grown single colony of A. These colonies were serially transferred five times in the selection medium to confirm stability of transformation, growth and morphology. The Foc 2 transformants were transferred to PDA containing hygromycin B to observe colony morphology and cultural characteristics with respect to wild-type. Slide preparations using a drop of sterile water and hyphae were done for both the wild-type and the transformants.

The radial mycelial growth RMG was determined by measuring the length of four radii each radius in one direction daily. The radial growth rate RGR was calculated by the slope of the linear regression of the mean colony radius over time [ 27 ]. In addition, pathogenicity of the transformants was evaluated in comparison to the wild type. Microconidial suspensions of wild-type Foc 2 and five transformants were used to inoculate the susceptible JG62 and resistant Digvijay chickpea cultivars as described earlier.

Three replicates of five seedlings per cultivar per transformant as well as the wild-type were inoculated.

Races of Fusarium oxysporum ciceri in Andalucia, southern Spain

The seedlings mock inoculated with sterile deionized water served as control. The cultures were centrifuged at rpm and the pelleted mycelia were crushed under liquid nitrogen and transferred to 5 ml extraction buffer 10 mM Tris pH 7. Mycelial debris was removed by another round of centrifugation. The resulting supernatant was assayed for fluorescence using nm and nm wavelengths for excitation and emission, respectively. Protein concentration was measured using Bradford assay with bovine serum albumin as standard [ 2829 ].

Relative fluorescence units RFU values were then normalized with respect to protein concentration. Mycelial mass collected by filtration through muslin cloth was crushed to fine powder under liquid nitrogen and DNA was isolated using modified CTAB protocol [ 30 ]. Another set d.sp.ciceri JG62 and Digvijay plants was inoculated with the selected transformant D4. The inoculated and oxjsporum chickpea plants were sampled daily during 1 to 4 DPI and at a 2—3 day interval thereafter, up fusarim 18 DPI.

During each sampling, four plants were collected from each treatment. The entire f.sp.diceri of the tap and lateral roots of each plant was observed under a confocal laser scanning microscope CLSM. In addition, auto fluorescence of chickpea plants was assessed at wavelengths of — nm. Three sets of primers viz. PCR conditions were oxysporrum for each primer pair and all the reactions were performed at least twice. The amplification products were electrophoresed and visualized using a gel documentation system Syngene, USA.

To determine pathogen load in susceptible JG62 and resistant Digvijay chickpea plants, genomic DNA isolated from whole roots of inoculated plants was used as template for qPCR. Non-template control as well as DNA from un-inoculated chickpea root served as negative controls. Each reaction contained 30 ng DNA, 0. The exponential phase of the reaction was identified by plotting the fluorescence on a log scale fsp.ciceri linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the efficiency of each reaction using Linreg software [ 32 ].

The amount of pathogen DNA was estimated in the roots of inoculated cultivars at different time fusaarium from the standard curves established earlier. This revealed the biomass of the pathogen at respective time-points. Similar procedure was followed for estimating the biomass of the pathogen in the fractions of chickpea root and shoot tissues 2 inch fractions from the root tip clipped for inoculation at different time points.

The lowest 2 inch fraction of the root was named as R1, while the topmost 2 inch fraction was named as R5. Similarly, S1 was the lowest shoot fraction, followed by S2. JG62 has very short root-length and root mass compared to Digvijay. For candidate gene expression analysis, gene specific f.zp.ciceri were designed Table 2 from the conserved regions of fungal virulence related genes using the sequences f.xp.ciceri in NCBI database database-fungi http: Wilting symptoms started to appear at about 7 dpi in JGI and intensified with fusqrium.

The presence of hygromycin B phophotransferase hph and eGFP genes in the transformants was confirmed by PCR amplicons of sizes bp and 1 kb for hph and bp for eGFPrespectively; while no amplification was observed in wild-type Foc 2 S5 Fig. No morphological changes in size or shape of vegetative structures were observed.


The transformants retained the colony morphology characteristics of the wild-type including white cottony growth of aerial mycelia. Similarly, virulence of all the five transformants was comparable to that of the wild type. The level of GFP fluorescence in the oxyspourm transformants was variable, while the wild-type Foc 2 showed negligible fluorescence. Radial growth rate; calculated by slope of linear regression of the mean colony radius over time.

Each value is the mean of three replicates petri dishes. In early stage of infection, colonization on root surface was observed in both the cultivars by forming the primary mycelia at the root apex Fig 1B—1D. Surface colonization was followed by direct penetration of hyphae into epidermal cells without forming any specialized structures Fig 1B Inset. The pathogen then entered root cortex region by 2 dpi Fig 1E. Uniform expression of eGFP in hyphae and spores of transformed isolate D4.

Germinating conidium with primary mycelium in contact with root apex at 24 hpi. Initial hyphal r.sp.ciceri at lower root zone at 2 dpi. Intermediate root zone showing hyphal colonization extending fusarum epidermis to cortical cells at 2 dpi. Vascular region of root getting colonized at 3 dpi.

Fungal colonization in cortex region of DVI. Based on these pilot studies, in-depth analysis of pathogen infection in JGI and DVI was performed throughout the disease progression. During early infection stages up to 4—6 dpiboth cultivars showed surface colonization and entry of the pathogen in lower roots Fig 2A and 2B.

However, substantial colonization of vascular region was thereafter observed in lower and middle root zone of only JGI at 8 dpi Fig 2C. Further, the appearance of wilting symptoms in JGI was marked with heavy colonization of lower, middle and upper root zones along with the lower stem region at 10—12 dpi Fig 2D. However in DVI, initially the pathogen was restricted to root cortex region Fig 2C and 2D and reached xylem vessels very late by 18 dpi and that too in very less numbers.

By 25 dpi, both the root and tusarium of JGI were heavily colonized resulting in disruption of normal architecture, complete wilting and death of most of the plants; while the root and shoot architectures of DVI plants were nearly normal Fig 3B and 3C. Heavy colonization of root of susceptible JG62 plant in longitudinal section.

Cross section of root of susceptible JG62 plant showing complete colonization of fungus in cortex C as well as xylem vessels X and deformation of root architecture. Longitudinal section of stem of susceptible JG62 plant with the extensive presence of conidia as well as mycelia of fungus. Cross and longitudinal sections of root of resistant plant Digvijay with absence of any fungus and normal architecture of roots.

Longitudinal and cross section of stem of resistant Digvijay plant without any fungal infection. At this time point, the maximum amount of pathogen DNA was detected in all the four R1-R4 root fractions and both S1-S2 the shoot fractions. However at 28 dpi, the pathogen load significantly decreased in all the fractions. Interestingly, the pathogen load was below the detectable limit in R3 and R4 fractions at 28 dpi in DVI.


Hi all, I’m designing a three points hitch and I know there is the ASAE S that imposes some geometric constraints. I don’t understand one. Buy ASAE S Agricultural Equipment – Three-point Free-link Attachment For Hitching Implements To Agricultural Wheel Tractors from SAI Global. Buy ASAE S THREE-POINT FREE-LINK ATTACHMENT FOR HITCHING IMPLEMENTS TO AGRICULTURAL WHEEL TRACTORS from SAI.

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I don’t understand one constraint called “mast adjustment height”, it isn’t drawn on the standard. Does anyone know, what it is?

I saw that there is a reference to ISO Appears that they are identical s21 so that doesn’t help. Note that the “Mast adjustment height, lowest position” is the same as the “lower hitch point.

ASABE Technical Library :: Abstract

The geometry is designed to kick the rear of the implement up at the high lift range to facilitate transport of long implements i. Dear IceStationZebra, thanks a lot, with your explanation I have understood it perfectly. What a pity ISO didn’t provide any picture for it. Do companies have to design a three point hitch in according to this standard or not? I haven’t found any refereces so far.

Their use by anyone engaged in industry or trade is entirely voluntary. Conformity does not ensure compliance with applicable ordinances, laws saae regulations.

Prospective users are responsible for protecting themselves against liability for infringement of patents. Realize that all of these organizations use people in the respective industries to come up with the standards that they will use.

What this basically means is that there is very little outside oversight, unless it concerns the public good. This is where homologation comes in. What you need to do is find out if the country where you want to sell your equipment makes them mandatory.

Individual governments can make them mandatory, or go above and beyond! The EU is a prime example. There are the “directives” that cover any machine sold in the EU. A few of the main ones are: Italy is a good example of this. And then there are countries like the USA where standards may not be required by law, but if someone gets injured and you don’t follow the “voluntary” safety standards you will loose a lot of money in court cases.

Hi IceStationZebra, thanks for your reply. In the directive you have mentioned, any ISO standard isn’t mentioned about the three point hitch, but few companies in their tractor datasheet write the three point hitch category, so it should mean the most of them don’t follow any standard, right?

It would help a lot if you told me which country or countries you are interested in. They probably don’t mention it because it has been the standard so long that it is assumed, but as far as I know all the large tractor manufacturers in Europe, Australia and Americas follow the 3pt standard.

In reality it is probably tough to meet all the 3pt requirements considering all the other options and tire choices that are offered in the various markets. I wouldn’t be surprised if they cut corners a little, but you would have to measure very carefully to find out. But isn’t a tractor sold with only one front and rear radius index?

By the way for the dynamic radius index I mean the radius that it is used exclusively for the calculation of forward ground speed during homologation procedures. OK, you are talking about the tire rolling radius. I have never been involved with the homologation of a tractor, but my assumption is that you would have to take whatever the worst case is for the size of tires offered. Some aspects of homologation will be worse off with tall tires, others with short ones. This is what I had to do for a articulated loaders.

You also have to consider other options. Will you see different performance with a “quick hitch”? What about two wheel drive vs. Some tractors have multiple holes for the top link, meant to increase the tipping action with long implements like plows. Many tractor chassis also come with different classes of 3 pt.

For example, it is very common in North America to find tractors with class 3 and 4 narrow. Hi IceStationZebra, thanks for your reply, does the rolling radius change on the several configuration for a specific tractor? There of course will be minute changes due to gross vehicle weight differences, but they will be minor. Different tire configurations will alter the pitch of the tractor. Some tractors have both and rpm PTO shafts, at slightly different heights.

As far as tipping action goes, I am specifically talking about how the geometry tips the implement forward as it is raised. If you have a long implement like a 6 bottom plow you may want to increase the tipping action to increase road clearance for the last bottom during transport. Thanks IceStationZebra, I got it. It appears mainly so they could introduce the idea of adjustable lift rods. I wouldn’t be surprised if there were a few tractors without, but the vast majority have had at least one adjustable rod.

But what I was really getting at is that to define adjustable lift rods you first have to define what a lift rod is. Hi IceStationZebra, I was again on holiday. Btw the lift rod regulation was introduced in order to enchance the three point hitch connectivity, right?

Three-Point Free-Link Attachment for Hitching Implements to Agricultural Wheel Tractors

I think the main reason for adjustable lift rods is so you have some adjustment when plowing with one wheel in the furrow. I have never used it for any other reason. I guess you would probably use it on any implement that is nonsymetrical. Thanks for your reply. Regarding to the three point hitch design, I have found this paper, https: In the three point hitch design I think it is also necessary to take into account the lifting perfomance measured in according of the OECD code.

There I created a tool to design a TPH. Would it be useful for designers to take into account to design a three point hitch? I have another doubt regarding the three point hitch. I’m looking to nebraska test report of some tractors and I noticed the three point hitch can lift a load higher than the tractor stability limit. This sounds weird to me, since it’s not a safe working condition. Why are three point hitch designed to develop so high lifting loads?

I have seen the test done with a bare tractor frame with no engine or tires bolted to the floor. There are no stability limits in the testing so the tractor manufactures keep pushing the limit so they can claim to have the strongest tractor. Which, like you pointed out can get silly. In reality you don’t want a lack of lifting force to be lowest limit in your system.

This will make customers think you have a weak tractor. Farmers will add weight to the front of the tractor to offset the lack of stability. On the negative side this is stressful to the tractor structure, adds to soil compaction, and burns extra fuel. I noticed all companies are set up to a similar lifting force for the same tractor type.

I was wondering why just that lifting force was choiced by producers.

I aasae somehow it’s the force necessary to lift the implement at a specific vertical acceleration. Do you think it’s a good argument? They are usually fairly abrupt. I’m not suprised that similar tractors from different manufacturers have similar lifting forces.

As customers compare specifications nobody wants to appear lacking. I got the point.

So when designers design a three point hitch, what do they take into account? I found an old paper, where it’s written it is necessary do apply two times the gravity force asa an implement to remove it out from the ground.

Taking into account the heaviest implementI get the same order of size of the maximum lifting force for a specific tractor size. Therefore in normal working condition the lifting force is lower than the one measured with the OECD test. What do you think about it?

One has to realize that these standards are created by representatives from the companies who are selling these products, not independant engineers or scientists. And as such they all have an interest in making their products look good. They could have chosen a distance that was farther back, but then the number would be smaller and infer less strength.

Sometimes the standards come from a group that already has a standardized process, maybe has done some comparative testing, and the others just agree to adopt it.


The Academic Word List (AWL) was developed by Averil Coxhead at the School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies at Victoria University of Wellington. The list includes most of the headwords of Averil Coxhead’s () Academic Word List. The source of the words here is. In this section you can do practice tests for all groups of the academic word list. The Academic Word List (AWL) was developed by Averil Coxhead at the School .

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Whether you’re a student, an educator, or a lifelong learner, Vocabulary. Don’t have an account yet? It’s free and takes five seconds.

The source of the words here is http: The definitions and examples come from selections made available by vocabulary. The manually-added notes are examples for and from graduate students in various fields at the University of Michigan.

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Academic Word List words (Coxhead, 2000)

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Academic Word List – Wikipedia

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ASTM C/CMa Red – Standard Specification for Gypsum Board (Standard + Redline PDF Bundle)

The terms backing board, coreboard, and shaftliner board refer to different end uses. The term gypsum backing board, as used in this specification, shall include gypsum coreboard and gypsum shaftliner board unless otherwise stated. This product is also suitable for decoration.

This product is also suitable for use on interior walls. Sstm applicable to specific gypsum boards are located in the following sections:. Within the text, the SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system shall be used independent of the other. Values from the c3196 systems shall not be combined. Your Alert Profile lists the documents that will be monitored. If the document is revised or amended, you will be notified by email.

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ASTM C1396 Standard Specification for Gypsum Board

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